Historic Sikh Martyrs
A martyr is somebody who suffers persecution and death for advocating, refusing to renounce, and/ or refusing to advocate a belief or cause, usually a religious one.
This section describes the biographies of Sikh Martyrs who protected the humanity from the onslaught of islamist tyrannical forces. The Sikh Martyrs laid down their lives for religious freedom for all and to protect their own faith.
Martyrdom in Sikhism represents an important element of the faith; Sikh festivals mostly centre around the lives of the Gurus and Sikh martyrs. The first landmark in this field is the sacrifice by the Fifth Guru, Guru Arjan Sahib Ji. Guru Arjan was the first prophet in the religious history of India to be a martyr of faith. Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji, the Ninth Guru, and Guru Gobind Singh Ji, the Tenth Guru, both sacrificed themselves for the cause of truth or religion.
The Gurus kept an army and struggled with the oppressive mughal empire involving the loss of life of thousands of Sikhs. The Sikh Gurus demonstrated, during non-violent protests, that not only is martyrdom a religious (and essential) institution but it is also the most potent method of education and training for the cause of righteousness, love and truth. This is amply proved by the capacity of the Sikhs to make maximum sacrifices for the cause of religion and man.
Note: Suicide is a sin. Sikhism does not acknowledge the actions of suicide bombers.
Sikhism believes in "Ibaadat se Shahadat" (from love to martyrdom, sacrifice). In Sikhism, Guru Nanak in the very beginning of his famous hymn 'Jap Ji', while rejecting the paths of ascetic one point meditation or withdrawal, emphatically prescribes carrying out or living according to the will of God as the goal of man. "How to become the abode of truth and how to demolish the wall of illusion or falsehood?", he asks, and then proceeds to answer. "Through following God's will". He then defines the God's will to be the 'ocean of virtues' (gunigahira) or altruistic. The Gurus' basic perception of this will is that it is loving or love.
It is in this context that Guru Nanak proclaims that life is 'a game of love', and gives a call to humanity to follow this path. He says: "Should you seek to engage in the game of love, step into my street with your head placed on your palm: While stepping on to this street, ungrudgingly sacrifice your head". Repeated emphasis is laid on this goal of following the will of God, who is directing the universe, in Guru Granth Sahib: "Through perception of God's will is the supreme state attained". "With the perception of God's will alone is the essence realized". "By perceiving God's will is truth attained". "By God's will the world created as a place for righteous living". "Profoundly wondrous is the divine will. Whoever has its perception, has awareness of the true praxis of life".
Some memorable historic martyrs:
Akali Phula Singh - A prominent Nihang Sikh general (Jathedar) and mukh sewadar of Sri Akal Takht.
Baba Banda Singh Bahadur - established the first independent sovereign state under Sikh rule, with its own coins and seal.
Baba Deep Singh - is revered among Sikhs as one of the most hallowed martyrs in Sikhism and as a highly religious person.
Bhai Bota Singh & Bhai Garja Singh - the story of two Sikhs that made a stand.
Bhai Daya Singh - was one of the Panj Pyare or the Five Beloved.
Bhai Dayala - was one of the Sikhs that accompanied Sri Guru Teg Bahadur Sahib when they were tortured and executed by the muslims.
Bhai Dharam Singh - was one of the Panj Pyare or the Five Beloved.
Bhai Himmat Singh - was one of the Panj Pyare or the Five Beloved.
Bhai Kirpa Dutt - fell as a martyr in the Battle of Chamkaur on 7 December 1705.
Bhai Mokham Singh - was one of the Panj Pyare or the Five Beloved.
Bhai Sahib Singh - was one of the Panj Pyare or the Five Beloved.
Bhai Sati Das - was one of the Sikhs that accompanied Sri Guru Teg Bahadur Sahib when they were tortured and executed by the muslims.
Bhai Sukha Singh & Bhai Mehtab Singh - avenged the desecration of the Sri Harmandir Sahib.
Bhai Tara Singh - was a devout Sikh that took amrit from Bhai Mani Singh and upheld Sikh values.
Bhai Taru Singh - and the choice of conversion to Islam or death by torture. If you choose to cut your hair, read this first.
Bhai Uday Singh - was one of the four sons of renowned Sikh martyr Bhai Mani Singh Ji.
Chali (40) Mukte - literally means forty (chali) liberated ones (mukte), which refers to the 40 Sikhs who laid down their lives for Sikhism.
Khalsa Women and Mir Mannu's Jail - the sacrifice of the Khalsa women that was so great that it became a part of the Daily Sikh Ardas (prayer).
Nawab Kapur Singh - is considered one of the pivotal figures in Sikh history. He organised the Sikh Confederacy and the Dal Khalsa.
Sahibzada Ajit Singh & Sahibzada Jujhar Singh - The eldest two sons of Sri Guru Gobind Singh Ji.
Sahibzada Zorawar Singh & Sahibzada Fateh Singh - The youngest two sons of Sri Guru Gobind Singh Ji.
Subheg Singh & Shahbaz Singh - Eighteenth century martyrs of the Sikh faith.
Young Sikh Martyr - A nameless young Sikh, only known to Waheguru for his committment to Sikhi.
It should be clear that in Sikhism the goal is not to attain personal salvation or Moksha or 'eternal bliss'. It is instead the perception or recognition of His Will and working in line with its direction. This state is in fact synonymous with God-realization.
The concept of martyrdom was laid down by Guru Nanak. In fact, his was an open challenge and a call. His hymn calling life 'a game of love' is of profoundest significance in Sikh thought and theology. It has five clear facets. It expresses in clear words the Guru's spiritual experience of God. While he repeatedly calls Him unknowable, his own experience, he states, is that He is All Love. Second, He is Benevolent and Gracious towards man and the world. Third, since He expresses His Love in the world, the same, by implication, becomes real and meaningful.
Further, the Guru by giving this call clearly proclaims both the goal and the methodology of religious life in Sikhism. The goal is to live a life of love which is in line with His expression of Love and Grace in the world. Simultaneously, the methodology of whole-life activity and commitment for the goal is emphasized. The significant fact is that in the entire Guru Granth Sahib it is these principles of the Sikh way of life that are repeatedly emphasized. There are innumerable hymns endorsing one or the other of the above principles of Sikh theology.
It is this couplet of Guru Nanak that forms the base of martyrdom in Sikhism. For, the commitment desired is total, and once on that Path the seeker has to have no wavering in laying down his life for the cause. In his hymn Guru Nanak has defined and stressed that the institution of martyrdom is an essential ingredient of the Path he was laying down for man.